Relationship of obstractive sleep apnea with cardiovascular disease and the role of lifestyle habits in the management of the cardiometabolic complications of the disease

Ioanna Kechribari, Michael Georgoulis, Meropi Kontogianni, Emmanuel Vagiakis, Nikos Yiannakouris

Abstract


Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a chronic and common sleep disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete collapse of the upper airway during sleep, leading to pauses of breathing and arousals. Although previously considered as a respiratory disorder, it is nowadays recognized as a systemic disease, which is strongly associated with various metabolic diseases, such as obesity, hypertension and diabetes. Moreover, during the last decades, OSA has been recognized as an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, making the treatment of the disease necessary. So far, the first line treatment for OSA is the continuous positive airway pressure, a therapy that has been proven effective in alleviating the disease’s symptoms; however, other approaches for the prevention and treatment of the disease and the associated cardiometabolic risk factors are under investigation, including changes in lifestyle habits (dietary habits and physical activity). This review article discusses the relationship of OSA with cardiovascular disease and summarizes the results from interventional studies that have investigated the effects of lifestyle changes on cardiometabolic risk factors associated with OSA.

 

Η αποφρακτική άπνοια ύπνου (Obstructive Sleep Apnea – OSA) είναι μια χρόνια και συχνά εμφανιζόμενη υπνική διαταραχή, η οποία χαρακτηρίζεται από επαναλαμβανόμενες πλήρεις ή μερικές διακοπές της αναπνοής κατά τη διάρκεια του ύπνου. Παλαιότερα θεωρούνταν αποκλειστικά μια δυσλειτουργία του αναπνευστικού συστήματος, ωστόσο, σήμερα αναγνωρίζεται ως ένα συστηματικό νόσημα που σχετίζεται ισχυρά με την παχυσαρκία, την υπέρταση και τον σακχαρώδη διαβήτη. Επιπλέον, τα τελευταία χρόνια η OSA έχει αναγνωριστεί ως παράγοντας κινδύνου για την εμφάνιση καρδιαγγειακών νοσημάτων, με αποτέλεσμα η αντιμετώπισή της να κρίνεται απαραίτητη. Μέχρι στιγμής, η θεραπεία εκλογής είναι η χορήγηση συσκευής που ασκεί θετική πίεση στους αεραγωγούς, η οποία βελτιώνει τα συμπτώματα της νόσου κατά τη διάρκεια της ημέρας και την ποιότητα ζωής των ασθενών. Ωστόσο, η επιστημονική κοινότητα έχει στραφεί και σε άλλες προσεγγίσεις για την πρόληψη και αντιμετώπιση της OSA, καθώς και των καρδιομεταβολικών παραγόντων κινδύνου που σχετίζονται με αυτή, και μία από αυτές είναι η τροποποίηση των συνηθειών του τρόπου ζωής (συνήθειες διατροφής και σωματικής δραστηριότητας). Σε αυτό το άρθρο ανασκόπησης περιγράφεται η σχέση ανάμεσα στην OSA και τα καρδιαγγειακά νοσήματα και συνοψίζονται οι μελέτες παρέμβασης σε επίπεδο αλλαγών στις συνήθειες του τρόπου ζωής που έχουν πραγματοποιηθεί με σκοπό την αντιμετώπιση των καρδιομεταβολικών παραγόντων κινδύνου που σχετίζονται με τη νόσο.


Keywords


obstructive sleep apnea; cardiovascular diseases; cardiometabolic risk factors; lifestyle habits; weight loss;

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.23803/hja.v6i4.11

DOI (PDF): http://dx.doi.org/10.23803/hja.v6i4.11.g10

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